The design of a structure involves its study from the viewpoint of its strength and serviceability. structural design, for the given load, the geometry is checked, assured and approved. It is a process of finding out whether the selected section would be able to bear the different loads without failure, i.e. collapse, damage, and even deflection, or vibration.
Design of structures include
- Structural Planning and deciding load path both vertical and horizontal
- The process of finding out forces and computation of reaction, moment deflection, rotation etc. (Structural analysis)
- Design of Member (geometry, size and shape of all the member)
- Joint Detailing
- Detailing, Drawings for execution with notes and sequence of construction
We check whether the selected geometry and assumed dimension and size fulfills the design load criteria or not. If not then, we change the dimensions of the element and redesign it. The process is continued that till the design criteria are totally fulfilled i.e. stresses in member do not exceed permissible limits and permissible deflection etc. In brief, the cross sections are assumed and a dead load is calculated first. Then after analysis and finding exact reactions, the members are checked to see that they do not exceed permissible stresses.
It also includes the design criteria of the joints (Beam column junction) whether fixed joint or hinged joint etc. All the elements are checked for its load resisting capacity i.e. stress of different types i.e. flexure, direct shear etc., strain, deflection, rotation etc. If it exceeds permissible limits it has to be redone again and again until it falls within the permissible limits as per codes of design. The role of the structural designer is to ensure the safety, stability, and performance of the structure for its designed life.